Few inventions could be more happily calculated to diffuse the knowledge and preserve the memory of illustrious characters and splendid events, than medals.” These words written in 1787 expressed the feelings of the Continental Congress in March 1776 if they instituted the tradition of awarding medals because the highest distinction of national appreciation for the military heroes.
General Washington’s success in driving the British from Boston in 1776, General Horatio Gates’s victory at Saratoga in 1777, the storming of the British Forts at Stony Point and Paulus Hook in 1779, and General Greene’s Southern victories in 1781 all led to the final British surrender at Yorktown in 1781. These were great milestones in the United States’ War of Independence. Individuals and Congress were very pleased with their heroes and wanted to bestow a sign of national recognition especially upon those officers who had distinguished themselves in battle. Subsequently, Congress voted to award gold medals to outstanding military leaders. The initial approved medal honored George Washington and similar medals were bestowed upon other victors such as General Horatio Gates and Captain John Paul Jones for his naval victory over the Serapis in 1779. Since Benjamin Franklin, the U.S. Ambassador to France at the time, had access to the best of the French Royal engravers, it had been only natural for this country to show to France for assist in the actual production of our fi rst military medals. Under Franklin’s leadership the principle Engraver of the Paris Mint produced the initial medal in 1781. However, following Franklin’s departure from France, the development of the other medals for American heroes was extremely slow until Col. David Humphreys and, later, Thomas Jefferson became involved. It had been not until March, 1790, that President Washington received his gold and silver medals approved by Congress over a decade earlier.
Unlike present practice, these large table top presentation medals weren’t made to be worn on the military uniform. Evidently many thought otherwise since General Horatio Gates’ portrait shows his medal hanging from the neck ribbon. It is interesting to notice that Thomas Jefferson wished to see that these medals, which he was very proud, were known and preserved across the world. He designed to present sets of the medals to heads of state, foreign dignitaries and every college in the United States. Jefferson clearly saw medals because the best way to preserve the memory, valor and distinction of America’s soldiers and sailors. As a matter of interest, many of these early commemorative medallions remain being struck and offered on the market by the U.S. Mint.
The “Andre” medal broke the custom of restricting the award of medals to successful senior officers and is doubly unique in that it was created for wear round the neck. The medal was presented by Congress in 1780 to the three enlisted men who captured British Major John Andre with the plans of the West Point fortifications in his boot. Patriots John Paulding, Isaac Van Wart and David Williams were the recipients of the Andre medal and as time passed were additionally authorized a lifetime pension. Major Andre, the captured British officer, was hung as a spy.
In August 1782, George Washington established the Badge of Military Merit, the first U.S. decoration which had general application to all or any enlisted men and something which he hoped would inaugurate a permanent awards system. As well, he expressed his fundamental awards philosophy when he issued an order from his headquarters at Newburgh, NY, which read: “THE OVERALL, ever desirous to cherish a virtuous ambition in his soldiers, as well as to foster and encourage every species of military merit, directs that, whenever any singularly meritorious action is performed, the author of it shall be permitted to wear on his facings, over his left breast, the figure of a heart in purple cloth or silk, edged with narrow lace or binding. Not only instances of unusual gallantry, but also of extraordinary fidelity, and essential service in any way, shall meet with a due reward…the road to glory in a patriot army and a free country is thus opened to all or any. This order is also to have retrospect to the initial days of the war, and to certainly be a permanent one.”
Although special and commemorative medals have been awarded previously, until this point no decoration had been established which honored the private soldier with a reward for special merit. The wording of the order is worth careful study. The thing was “to cherish a virtuous ambition” and “to foster and encourage every species of military merit.” Note also, that Washington appreciated that every sort of service was important by proposing to reward, “not only instances of unusual gallantry, but additionally of extraordinary fidelity and essential service at all.” And finally, the wonderfully democratic sentence, “the street to glory in a patriotic army and free country is thus opened to all.”
Coming as it did, almost a year after Cornwallis’ surrender at Yorktown, the message was never given widespread distribution and, as a result, there have been only three known recipients of the badge, Sergeants Elijah Churchill, William Brown and Daniel Bissell. Unfortunately, following the Revolution, the award fell into disuse and disappeared for 150 years. However, it did not die, primarily because of the efforts of the Army’s then Chief of Staff, General Douglas MacArthur, (and, by no accident, among its first recipients). On the 200th anniversary of Washington’s birth, February 22, 1932, the War Department announced that: “By order of the President of america, the Purple Heart, established by Gen. George Washington at Newburgh, New York….is hereby revived out of respect to his memory and military achievements.”
Washington’s “figure of a heart in purple” was retained because the medal’s central theme and embellished with Washington’s likeness and his coat of arms. The words “For Military Merit” appear on the reverse as a respectful reference to its worthy predecessor. Towards the end of the war or immediately after, General Washington also authorized a stripe to be sewn on the sleeve of outstanding noncommissioned officers to honor three years of exemplary service or people that have six years wore two stripes. These exemplary service or good conduct stripes disappeared following the Revolutionary War combined with the original Badge of Military Merit.